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Title: Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos em sedimentos superficiais de sistemas aquáticos amazônicos (Estados do Pará e Amapá)
metadata.dc.creator: RODRIGUES, Camila Carneiro dos Santos
metadata.dc.contributor.advisor1: CORRÊA, José Augusto Martins
Keywords: Sedimentos (Geologia) - Amazônia
Sedimentos contaminados - Aspectos ambientais - Amazônia
Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos
Avaliação de riscos ecológicos
Água - Poluição - Amazônia
Issue Date: 13-Apr-2018
Publisher: Universidade Federal do Pará
Citation: RODRIGUES, Camila Carneiro dos Santos. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos em sedimentos superficiais de sistemas aquáticos amazônicos (Estados do Pará e Amapá). Orientador: José Augusto Martins Corrêa. 2018. 127 f. Tese (Doutorado em Geologia e Geoquímica) - Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, 2018. Disponível em: Acesso em:.
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic contaminats generated by natural (diagenetic or biogenic) and anthropogenic (pyrogenic or petrogenic) processes. They are primarily formed during heat-induced decomposition of organic matter. There are sixteen PAH considered as priority in environmental studies by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (USEPA) due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Most pollutants, as PAH, persist in sediments until their degradation, therefore sedimentary pollution studies can be effective approaches to contamination research. The aquatic bodies that constitute the basin of the Amazon River are habitats of great biological diversity, numerous species of fish and mollusks are an important food source for the riverine population and resources for the alimentary industry. PAH pollution of these aquatic systems can damage the biota and consequently the local people and economy. Even so very little information is available on extend of PAH pollution in amazonic aquatic systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate PAH contamination levels of the superficial sediments of the Amazon Coastal Zone (BelémPA, Macapá-AP and Santana-AP) through PAH identification and quantification, comparison of PAH levels found in nearby areas and around the world, identification of potential PAH sources to the studied area, evaluation of sediment quality in respect to these pollutants and an initial discussion about baselines for PAH in sediments from amazonian aquatic systems. Fourteen surficial sediment samples were collected along Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Belém-PA) urbanized area; eleven samples along the sinuous channels from the Combú and Onças islands, located yet in the mentioned above aquatic bodies; ten samples inside Aurá River that flows into the Guamá River; and sixteen samples along Amazon River Estuary (Macapá and Santana-AM) covering the urbanized margin and Santana island. Total PAH concentration (∑PAH) ranged from 18.1 to 9905.7 ng g−1 dw at Guajará Bay and Guamá River, 3824.2 to 15693.9 ng g−1 dw at Aurá River and 22.2 to 158 ng g−1 dw at Amazon River Estuary. In general, the studied area can be classified as moderate to highly contaminated. However, obtained PAH levels at the studied islands zone are relatively low and may be considered as baselines for these pollutants in sediments from amazonic aquatic systems. The discrimination of PAH sources and their toxicity potential is necessary to evaluate their effects in the environment. PAH are always emitted as a mixture, and the relative molecular concentration ratios are considered to be characteristic of a given emission source. The selected PAH ratios and statistical analysis for showed that biomass and fossil fuel combustion are the dominant PAH origin. Although the pyrogenic origin is the main source, we can not ignore that there is a mixture of PAH from different sources, the port and petrochemical activities are minor sources of these contaminants for the studied area. Data indicated the existence of punctual sources and a relatively restricted PAH transport. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on toxicity thresholds were be used to rank the toxicity of sediment samples and, consequently, the potential adverse biological effects. The ecological risk assessment indicated that PAH in the sediments should: at Guajará Bay and Guamá River urbanized margin, as well as at Aurá River, occasionally cause biological effects, as acute damage; at Combú and Onças islands, do not offer biological stress or damage potential; and at Amazon River Estuary, do not cause any adverse effect on organisms, but the presence of dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, considered powerful carcinogenic agents, in this aquatic system deserves more concerns.
Appears in Collections:Teses em Geologia e Geoquímica (Doutorado) - PPGG/IG

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